Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land. The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of nonrenewable power sources.
Wind power generation capacity in India has significantly increased in recent years. As of the end of July 2017 the total installed wind power capacity was 32.56 GW, mainly spread across the South, West and North regions. By the end of 2015, India had the fourth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. The levelised tariff of wind power reached a record low of ₹2.64 (4.1¢ US) per kWh (without any direct or indirect subsidies) during auctions for wind projects in October 2017. Before that the tariff was Rs. 3.42/kWh in August 2017 in a competitive bid managed by TANGEDCO (Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation).
The development of wind power in India began in 1986 with the first wind farms being set up in coastal areas of Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Gujarat (Okha) and Tamil Nadu (Tirunelveli) with 55 kW Vestas wind turbines. These demonstration projects were supported by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
The potential for wind farms in the country was first assessed in 2011 to be more than 2,000 GW by Prof. Jami Hossain of TERI University, New Delhi. This was subsequently re-validated by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, US (LBNL) in an independent study in 2012. As a result, the MNRE set up a committee to reassess the potential and through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE, previously C-WET) has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind resource in India from 49,130 MW to 302,000 MW assessed at 100 m hub height. Wind turbines are now being set up at even 120 m hub height and the wind resource at higher hub heights of around 120 m or more that are prevailing is possibly even more. In 2015, the MNRE set the target for Wind Power generation capacity by the year 2022 at 60,000 MW.
Wind power accounts nearly 9.87% of India's total installed power generation capacity and generated 46,011 million kWh in the fiscal year 2016-17 which is nearly 3% of total electricity generation. The capacity utilisation factor is nearly 19.62% in the fiscal year 2016-17 (14% in 2015-16). 70% of wind generation is during the five months duration from May to September coinciding with Southwest monsoon duration.
Tamilnadu's wind power capacity is around 29% of India's total. The Government of Tamil Nadu realized the importance and need for renewable energy, and set up a separate Agency, as registered society, called the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) as early as 1985. Now, Tamil Nadu has become a leader in Wind Power in India. In Muppandal wind pass, the total capacity is 1500 MW, the largest wind pass in India. The total wind installed capacity in Tamil Nadu is 7633 MW. During the fiscal year 2014-15, the electricity generation is 9.521 GWh, with about a 15% capacity utilization factor.
India is planning to enter into offshore wind power, with a 100 MW demonstration plant located off the Gujarat coast. The project focuses on the States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu for identification of potential zones for development through techno-commercial analysis and preliminary resource assessment. It will also establish a platform for structural collaboration and knowledge sharing between stakeholders from European Union and India, on offshore wind technology, policy, regulation, industry and human resource development.
|Installed Wind Power Capacity|
|Year||Year End Cumulative Capacity (in MW)|
|Installed wind capacity by state as of 19 October 2016|
|State||Total Capacity (MW)|
TASMA's Stake in Wind:
Since the inception of TASMA in early 1997, TASMA has been advising & encouraging its members' to go for green energy investments like Wind, Solar, Bio-mass etc., As a result, TASMA members have invested into Windmills to a tune of 1,300 MW spread across all the windy passes like Aralvaimozhi, Senkottah, Palghat & Andipatti in the State of Tamilnadu. The capacities may vary from 225 KW to 2.1 MW depending on the Power requirement of the member mills for their own manufacturing demands; The estimated generation from these windmills is approximately 2,200 GWh annually which had mitigated 2.2 Million tonnes of Carbon-di-oxide equivalent every year.